PC Based Fire Extinguisher Vehicle Using PIC Microcontroller

PC Based Fire Extinguisher Vehicle Using PIC Microcontroller

 

                                    A PROJECT REPORT

                                      Session 2008-2011

  • PROJECT SUPERVISOR

    Engr:  Kashif Mirza

  • DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING

 

  • DECLARATION


    We hereby declare that no portion of the work referred to in this Project Report has been submitted in support of an application for another degree or qualification to any other university or other institute of learning. If any act of plagiarism found, we are fully responsible for every disciplinary action against us depending upon the seriousness of the proven offence, even the cancellation of our degree by the Disciplinary Committee.

     

    COPYRIGHT STATEMENT

     

    • Copyright in text of this report rests with the student authors. Copies (by any process) either in full, or of extracts, may be made only in accordance with the instructions given by the authors and lodged in the Library of The University of Faisalabad. Details may be obtained from the Librarian. This page must form part of any such copies made. Further copies (by any process) of copies made in accordance with such instructions may not be made without the permission (in writing) of the authors.
    • The ownership of any intellectual property rights which may be described in this report is vested in the Department of Electrical Engineering, The University of Faisalabad, subject to any prior agreement to the contrary, and may not be made available for use by third parties without the written permission of the Department of Electrical Engineering, The University of Faisalabad, which will prescribe the terms and conditions of any such agreement.
    • Further information on the conditions under which disclosures and exploitation may take place is available in the Library of The University of Faisalabad, Faisalabad.

     

    ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

     

     

    All acclamation and praises are for “Almighty ALLAH”, most gracious, most merciful, and most beneficent. Our special respect and praises to the greatest man of the universe, the Holy Prophet Hazarat Muhammad (PBUH) who is forever, a torch of guidance, for mankind.

    We are greatly thankful to our project supervisor Engr. Kashif Mirza sb. whose guidance and enlightening ideas helped us at each level of learning. He was kind, gracious and patient in support of the time that we devoted to the project and with his own valuable time. He was a constant source of inspiration and encouragement. He fully contributed his immense intellectual prowess towards originating, shaping and completing this project.

     

    List of Final Year Projectsclick

     

    ABSTRACT

     

    Robot is usually an electro-mechanical machine which is guided by computer and electronic programming. The Main idea of this project is to develop a application which can detect unexpected fire attacks and take precaution steps to save property, human life. It will be so hard to detect fire accidents accurately. So there is need for a application which can detect fire accurately and extinguish it.

     

    The fire extinguishing robotic vehicle can be controlled by computer. The whole system of this project consists of Microcontrollers. Computer software, wireless transceiver modules on both sides, water jet spray, Temperature sensor, DC gear motors and wireless Camera.

     

    When commands fed from the computer software, the microcontroller circuit interfaced to it reads the command and sends relevant data of that command wirelessly using transceiver module. This data is received by the transceiver module on the vehicle and fed it to microcontroller. which activate camera, motors & pump with respect to the command.

     

    The new feature in this Robotic vehicle is that, it has a wireless video camera mounted on it whose direction can also be controlled using computer software commands. The live video can be viewing on computer.

     

    The Additional feature is that, vehicle has a water jet spray with tank rather than ordinary fan for extinguishing fire. The water jet spray is capable of sprinkling water.

     

     TABLE OF CONTENTS

     

    Declaration and Copyright Certificate…………………………………..

    Acknowledgement………………………………………………………….

    Abstract………………………….……………………………………………

    Table of Contents……….……………………………………………………

    List of Figures…………..………………………………………………………

     

     

    Chapter 1                Introduction

     

    1.1            Background……

    1.2            Project Aim……………………

    1.3            features………………….

    1.4            Requirements…………………….

    1.5            System overview diagram……………

    1.5.1    Transmitter circuit ……………

    1.5.2    Receiver circuit…………………

     

    Chapter 2                Design Consideration

    2.1             Basic Design…………………

    2.2             System Structure…………………

    2.3             Control Section…………………

    2.3.1     Transmitter side…………………

    2.3.2     Receiver side…………………

     

    Chapter 3              Hardware Description and Implementation

     

    3.1         Transmitter side Control Unit…………………………………………

    3.1.1    PIC Microcontroller16F877………………………………………

    3.1.2    MAX232……………………………………………………

    3.1.3    Opto-coupler PC817……………………………………………………

    3.1.4   Serial Port DB9……………………………………………………

    3.1.5     Transceiver……………………………………………………

    3.2        Receiver Side with Vehicle……………………………………………………

    3.2.1      Transceiver……………………………………………………

    3.2.2     Decoder PT2272……………………………………………………

    3.2.3      H-Bridge……………………………………………………

    3.2.4      Motor Driver (L298) ……………………………………………………

    3.2.5     Motor……………………………………………………

    3.2.6     Battery……………………………………………………….

    3.2.7      Wireless Camera……………………………………………………

    3.2.8      Water jet spray…………………………………………………

    3.2.9      Vehicle……………………………………………………

    3.2.10    Temperature Sensor……………………………………………………

     

    Chapter 4               Software Design and Schematic Diagram

     

    4.1          Hyper Terminal……………………………………………………

    4.1.1        Hyper Terminal setup……………………………………….

    4.2            MikroC………………………………………………………

    4.3           Proteus…………………………………………………………

    4.4          Video Capturing Software…………………………………….

    4.5          Schematic Design……………………………………………..

    4.5.1      Transmitter Section……………………………………………

    4.5.2      Receiver Section……………………………………………..

    4.5.3      Relay Section…………………………………………………

     

    Chapter 5               Summary/Limitations

    5.1             Summary and Limitations……………………………….………………..

     

    Chapter 6               Recommendations for Future Work

        6.1                Robots in Future……………………………….………………..

    6.2              Life Like Robots……………………………….………………..

    6.3              Future Extensions……………………………….………………..

     

    Chapter 7                 Conclusion

    References……………………………………………………………………….

    Appendices…………………………………………………………………………

     

    LIST OF FIGURES

     

    1.1             System Overview Diagram……………………………………

    1.2            Transmitter circuit……………………………………………

    1.3            Receiver Circuit………………………………………………

    2.1            System Structure ……………………………………………..

    2.2            Transmitter Side Block Diagram ………………………………….

    2.3            Receiver Side Block Diagram ……………………………………..

    3.1             Implementation of Transmitter Side Circuit………………………

    3.2            PIC Microcontroller………………………………….

    3.3            Pin Configuration of PIC Microcontroller………………..

    3.4            Pin Diagram of MAX232 …………………………………………

    3.5            Outer and Internal Structure of Opto-coupler   ………………………..

    3.6            A Male DB-9 Connector …………………………………

    3.7            Transmitter Module ………………………………………….

    3.8             Receiver Module ………………………………………………

    3.9             Implementation of Receiver side circuit ………………

    3.10          Transmitter Module…………………………………………………

    3.11            Receiver Module …………………………………………………

    3.12            Pin Configuration of PT2272 …………………………………………..

    3.13           H-bridge circuit …………………………………………………………

    3.14           L298 Pin Configuration …………………………………………..

    3.15           Gear Motor …………………………………………..

    3.16           Battery………………………………………………..

    3.17           Water Tank …………………………………………..

    3.18           Wireless Camera    …………………………………………..

    3.19           Vehicle Design …………………………………………..

    3.20           Pin Configuration LM35    …………………………………………..

    4.1             Connection Description………………………………………………

    4.2            Com Port Setting…………………………………………………….

    4.3            Com Properties………………………………………………………

    4.4            New Line Connection……………………………………………….

    4.5           ASCII Setup………………………………………………………….

    4.6           MikroC Programming Window………………………………………

    4.7           Proteus Screen Shot…………………………………………………

    4.8           Video Capture Software Screen shot………………………………..

    4.9           Transmitter Section………………………………………………….

    4.10         Receiver Section…………………………………………………….

  • 4.11         Relay Section………………………………………………………..
  • Chapter 1                                                         

    Introduction

    A Fire extinguisher is an active fire protection device used to extinguish or control fire often in emergency situations. It is use for out of control fire without any human control. Otherwise requires the expertise of a fire department.

    A portable PC Based Fire Extinguisher Vehicle is arguably one of the best and cost-effective defense against property damage from a fire. When used properly PC based Fire extinguisher save lives and property by putting out fire or containing one until the fire department arrives.

    A PC based Fire extinguisher is a very good example of portability. In it we have survival important features discussed further in this chapter.

    fyp projects for electronics engineering 

  • 1.1 Background

    In past many types of fire fighting robot was design which detect fire with the help of different types of sensors such as smoke detector, light detector etc. And extinguish the fire using fan.

    The common problems in that fire fighter robot (which uses smoke or light detector) are that they do not detect the fire accurately due to air effect or low light. So this problem can try to solve in our project.

     

    1.2 Project Aim   

    The aim of our project is to design a more effective and multipurpose PC Based Fire Extinguisher Vehicle using PIC. This project will also produce an opportunity for the user to remotely and visually monitor the infected areas and such places where it is hard for a human being to make a view point. After making a view point action can be taken accordingly.

    Although we have applied this system to monitor and control some basic functions more complex functions can be added according to the requirement.

     

     

    1.3 Features

    • Observe the surrounding with sharp camera eye.
    • Send live video and data captured to the computer wirelessly.
    • Easy control by a computer with Wireless media.
    • Detect the temperature of place from temperature sensors.
    • Mobile in all directions with miniature size.
    • Can take appropriate action when needed.

    1.4 Requirements

    • Design of robotic vehicle.
    • Receiver circuitry.
    • Transmitter circuitry.
    • Tuning of wireless video camera by using software.
    • Wireless transmission of video and control instructions.
    • Water jet spray and tank.
    • Computer control the direction and position of the Vehicle and perform the specific action.
    • Dc gear motor for robotic vehicle.1.5   System Overview Diagram:Fig. 1.1 System Overview Diagram  1.5.1 Transmitter Side:1Fig. 1.2 Transmitter side31.5.2 Receiver side:2Fig. 1.3 Receiver side
    • Chapter 2                     

      Design Consideration

       

      2.1 Basic Design:

       

      The system has two main functions:

        • Monitoring
        • Controlling

      First of all the video camera attached with the extinguish vehicle will send real time video signals to our monitoring device i.e., monitor. The video camera is wireless and has a range of over 50 ft radius. After watching the video on the monitor, the operator can make his own decision and take an action accordingly.

       

      After the user had made his decision, he sends the control commands via serial communication to the PIC micro controller which processes the digital data input. This control signal is then transmit through RF module. At the receiver end the transmitted signal is again process and signal is given to motor driver circuit to perform the required control action. The user observes the real time video by computer software.

      There are basically two circuit boards of the project:

      • Transmitter side Circuitry
      • Receiver side Circuitry

      The third most important design consideration is the choice of a video camera.

       

      2.2 System Structure:

      The extinguish vehicle system consists of a transceiver circuit on both side, water tank, video camera and Temperature sensor. The communication between receiver and transmitter is wireless i.e. RF communication

       

      The video camera is also wireless and operates on radio frequency.

      The receiver side circuitry is the heart of the system which moves the robot to left, to right, forward and reverse. The user can monitor all the activities of the robot using camera.

       

       

       

      The user is controlling the robotic vehicle by sending the control commands via serial communication from the transmitter side circuitry.

       

      Fig. 2.1 System Structure

       

        2.3 Control Section:

       

      The control section is mainly responsible of acquiring video from the site in order to monitor and extinguish fire. It is also responsible to perform some specific actions like camera on, camera left & right , water spray tank, Temperature sensor etc. user control the activity of the robotic vehicle by PC.

       

      On our control pc there is application software which is responsible to show the video and provides a user interface as a control window through hyper terminal.

       

      2.3.1 Transmitter side:

       

      The transmitter circuitry is connected to the control pc via serial cable so that RF communication can be coupled with serial communication of the control pc.

       

       

      Fig 2.2 Transmitter Side block Diagram

       

       

      For serial communication we used windows built-in software called HYPER TERMINAL.

      The control instruction which is given through hyper terminal is fed to micro controller through serial port DB-9. The micro controller manipulates the input digital signal and generates the required control signal. This control signal is the transmitted through RF module to remote receiver.

      An opto-coupler is used to avoid the interference between RF transmitter and the remaining circuitry in the transmitter side section.

      The radio transmitter has a range of 50 ft radius to be sufficiently received at the receiver.

       

      2.3.2 Receiver side:

       

      The receiver circuitry receives the control commands from the transmitter of the control section via Rf receiver. Two motors are connected to the robotic vehicle and the receiver circuitry such that motors move the robot exactly to the same position and direction as directed by the control section. This is done by decoding the control instruction sent by th transmitter with the help of remote  control decoder PT 2272. The PIC microcontroller of the receiver section is programmed in C language. The speed of the motors can be varied by varying the duty cycle of the PWM of the PIC micro controller. Greater the duty cycle of the PWM greater will be the speed of the motor.

       

      20

      Fig. 2.3 Receiver Side Block Diagram


      Chapter 3                                                         

      Hardware Description and Implementation

       

      The hardware of PC Based Fire Extinguisher Vehicle is divided into two basic categories

      1. Transmitter side Control unit.
      2. Receiver side with Vehicle.

      3.1 Transmitter side Control Unit:

      Transmitter is the device which actually transmits the signals. In our project transmitter is transmitting the control signals. In this project transmitter is connected to computer through serial port. RS-232 cable is being used for serial communication purpose between PC and transmitter through DB-9 connector. On the computer we monitor the exact location of fire and through Hyper terminal computer software, we transmit our control signal to vehicle. Hyper terminal is window built in software for serial communication. In this project DB-9 female connector is connected with transmitter side board.

      Fig.3.1 Implementation of Transmitter Side Circuit

      Control circuitry of this project consists of the following parts:

      1. PIC microcontroller 16F877
      2. MAX232.
      • Opto-coupler.
      1. Serial Port DB9.
      2. Transceiver.

       

       3.1.1 PIC Microcontroller16F877

      PIC microcontrollers are popular with developers and hobbyists alike due to their low cost wide availability, availability of low cost or free development tools, and serial programming (and re-programming with flash memory) capability.

       

      The PIC16F877 Microcontroller includes 8kb of internal flash Program Memory, together with a large RAM area and an internal EEPROM. An 8-channel 10-bit A/D convertor is also included within the microcontroller, making it ideal for real-time systems and monitoring applications. The PIC16F877 Controller is the ideal solution for use as a standard controller in many applications.

       

                                       4

      Fig.3.2 PIC microcontrollers

                   Features

      1. PIC16F877 Microcontroller has 8kb Internal Flash Program Memory.
      2. Direct In-Circuit Programming for Easy Program Updates.
      • Up to 28 I/O points with easy to connect standard headers.
      1. RS232 Connection with MAX232.
      2. Internal EEPROM.
      3. 8 Channel 10-bit A/D Convertor.
      • One 16-bit Timer with Two 8-bit Timers.
      • Power and Programming LED.

       

       

      1. Reset Button.
      2. Ideal as an Interchangeable Controller for Real-Time Systems.Reasons to choose PIC 16F877
          1. Easily Available in Pakistan.
          2. Very easy in use.
          3. Cheap in Price.
          4. Latest version of controllers.

         

                     3.1.2 MAX232:

        The MAX232 is an integrated circuit that converts signals from an RS-232 serial port to signals suitable for use in TTL compatible digital logic circuits..MAX232 is used 5v Single Supply, which is Maximum dedicated to the computer serial port RS-232. MAX232 total has 16 pins and it can be divided into 3 parts. The first part is a charge pump circuit. It consists of pin 1, 2,3,4,5,6 and 4 capacitors. The function is to produce both 12v and-12v power supply, RS-232 serial port provide the level of need. The second part is the data transfer channel. It is constituted by the two data channels PIN 7,8,9,10,11,12,13,14. Among them, PIN 13(R1IN), pin 12(R1OUT), PIN 11(T1IN), PIN 14 (T1OUT) are as the first data channel. PIN 8(R2IN), PIN 9(R2OUT), PIN10 (T2IN), PIN 7(T2OUT) are for the second data channel. TTL / CMOS data from T1IN, T2IN input into a RS-232 data from T1OUT, T2OUT DB9 connector to the computer; DB9 connector of the RS-232 data from R1IN, R2IN input into a TTL / CMOS data to and from R1OUT, R2OUT output. And the third part is the power supply. PIN 15 GND, PIN 16 VCC (5v).

        5

              Fig. 3.4           Pin diagram of the MAX232

        MAX232 has the following features:

        1. In line with all the technical standard RS-232
        2. Only requires a single 5V power supply
        • Chip charge pump with a boost, voltage, polarity reversal ability to generate 10V and-10V voltage

         

        1. Low power consumption, the typical supply current of 5mA
        2. The internal integration of two RS-232C driver

           

        3.1.3 Opto-coupler PC817:

        An opto-coupler also referred to as an opto-isolator is a piece of an electric circuit that transfers electricity between two other parts without allowing them to make a direct connection. While optocouplers offer element isolation similar to a relay component, they are often a better choice for circuit designers, as they are smaller and fit easily into the microcircuit systems used in electronics. An opto-coupler is essentially an optical transmitter and an optical receiver connected by a non-conductive barrier. It uses a beam of light to transfer energy from one circuit element to another, and it can handle incoming voltages of up to 7500V. The barrier that separates the two side of the opto-coupler is made from a transparent glass or plastic polymer that does not conduct electricity but does conduct light.

        In our project opto-coupler is performing the isolation between RF transmitter antenna and Pic microcontroller. In order to avoid interference opto-coupler has been used between RF antenna and transmitter circuitry. In our project 4-pin opto-coupler PC817 IC chip has been used.

         

        Fig. 3.5 Outer and internal structure of Opto-coupler (PC817)

        Features:

        The most important feature of an optocoupler is its electricity transfer efficiency. An optocoupler’s efficiency is measured through its current transfer ratio (CTR), which is the relationship between the current change on the output side of the barrier and the current change on the input side of the barrier. Most optocouplers work at a CTR between 10 and 50 percent.

         

        Applications:

        1. Computer terminals
        2. System appliances, measuring instruments
        • Electric home appliances, such as fan, heaters etc.
        1. Signal transmission between circuits of different potentials and impedances
        2. Medical equipment often uses optocouplers.

          3.1.4  Serial Port DB9:

          A serial port is a serial communication physical interface through which information transfers in or out one bit at a time. Throughout most of the history of personal computers, data transfer through serial ports connected the computer to devices such as terminals and various peripherals. Modern computers without serial ports may require serial-to-USB converters to allow compatibility with RS 232 serial devices. Serial ports are still used in applications such as industrial automation systems, scientific instruments.Serial ports are still used in these areas as they are simple, cheap and their console functions are highly standardized and widespread. A serial port requires very little supporting software from the host system. computer to devices such as terminals and various peripherals.

          In this project Transmitter is connected to computer through serial port. DB-9 serial cable  is connecting computer with Transmitter through DB-9 connector. Controlling commands are coming from computer which are given through Hyper terminal software  as serial data into transmitter. These control commands are in the form of 7-bit ASCII which are further encoded and transmitted to vehicle through RF antenna.

           

          21Fig. 3.6 A Male DB-9 connector

           

          3.1.5   Transceiver:

          The transceiver at transmitter side circuit consists of Transmitter and Receiver module. To establish the wireless connection between transmitter and receiver sections we used RF transmitter and Receiver. RF transmitter transmits the control signals to receiver to perform the necessary actions. RF receiver receive signal from control circuitry.

          6Fig. 3.7 Transmitter Module

                  7

          Fig.3.8 Receiver Module

           

          3.2    Receiver Side with Vehicle:

          The important portion of this project hardware design is Receiver and Extinguisher Vehicle.

          Receiver side consists of the following parts.

           

            1. Transceiver
            2. Decoder PT2272
            3. H- bridge
            4. Motor Driver  L298
            5. Motor
            6. Wireless camera
            7. Battery
            8. Water jet spray
            9. PIC microcontroller 16F877
            10. Extinguisher Vehicle
            11. Temperature sensor

           

          Fig. 3.9 Implementation of Receiver Side circuit

           

           

                      3.2.1   Transceiver:

          The transceiver at receiver side circuit consists of Transmitter and Receiver module. To establish the wireless connection between transmitter and receiver sections we used RF transmitter and Receiver. RF receiver, receive  the control signals and given to microcontroller and controller takes the necessary actions accordingly to receiver to perform the necessary actions. RF receiver receive signal from control circuitry.

          6Fig. 3.10 Transmitter Module7

          Fig.3.11 Receiver Module

           

          3.2.2 Decoder PT2272:

          decoder is a device which does the reverse operation of an encoder, undoing the encoding so that the original information can be retrieved. The same method used to encode is usually just reversed in order to decode. It is a combinational circuit that converts binary information from n input lines to a maximum of 2n unique output lines. In this project PT2272 has been used as decoder. PT2272 done the A/D conversion It receives the analog signal from transmitter and then convert into bits format for inputting to the micro controller.

           

          PT2272 is a remote control decoder paired with PT2262 utilizing CMOS Technology. It has 12 bits of tri-state address pins providing a maximum of 531,441 (or 312) address codes. PT2272 is available in several options to suit every application.

          8Fig. 3.12 Pin configurations of Decoder PT2272

          Features

          1. Low Power Consumption
          2. Very High Noise Immunity
          • Up to 6 Data Pins
          1. CMOS Technology
          2. Single Resistor Oscillator
          3. Wide Range of Operating Voltage: VCC=4~15V
          • Latch or Momentary Output Type

          3.2.3 H-Bridge:

          An H- bridge is an electronic circuit that enables a voltage to be applied across a load in either direction. These circuits are often used in robotics and other applications to allow DC motors to run forwards and backwards. H bridges are available as integrated circuits, or can be built from discrete components. In this project H-bridge is use control the two Dc motors connected to its output ,one for water jet spray and one for wireless camera. H-bridge takes control commands from microcontroller and perform the corresponding actions according to those control signals.

          22Fig. 3.13 H-bridge circuit

          3.2.4 Motor Driver (L298):

          The L298 is a popular motor driver IC that is usable from 6 to 50V, at up to 4A total output current. By itself, the IC is somewhat difficult to wire and use, but the Compact L298 Motor Driver makes it much more convenient to use. The L298 is an integrated monolithic circuit in a 15- lead Multi watt and Power SO20 packages. It is a high voltage, high current dual full-bridge driver designed to accept standard TTL logic levels and drive inductive loads such as relays, DC and stepping motors. Two enable inputs are provided to enable or disable the device independently of the input   signals.

          rfFig. 3.14 L298 Pin configuration

           

          L298 Features

          1. Operating supply voltage up to 46V
          2. Total DC current up to 4A
          • Low saturation voltage
          1. Over temperature protection logical “0” input voltage up to 1.5V
          2. High noise immunity

           

             3.2.5 Motor:

          fyp projects for electronics engineering

          Gear motors are complete motive force systems consisting of an electric motor and a reduction gear train integrated into one easy-to-mount and -configure package. This greatly reduces the complexity and cost of designing and constructing power tools, machines and appliances calling for high torque at relatively low shaft speed or RPM. Gear motors allow the use of economical low-horsepower motors to provide great motive force at low speed such as in lifts, winches, medical tables, jacks and robotics. They can be large enough to lift a building or small enough to drive a tiny clock.

            9

           

                                                      Fig. 3.15 gear motor

           

           3.2.6 Battery:

          These are easily available in the market which provides DC voltage to the motors. Batteries have been used in this project to provide power to dc motors. They are mounted robotic car. The battery used for this project is simple one DC battery of 12v and 1.5 amps. These batteries are providing approximately 7V to DC motors which are moving the robotic car.

           

          esFig.3.16 Battery

              3.2.7          Wireless Camera:

           

          In this project Wireless camera is very important part because through this we find out the exact location of fire. it is mounted over vehicle. It captures the video and transmits it   at certain RF. RF is different for different Wireless camera models. Wireless camera is easily available in the market and it is usually used for security purposes.

          The wireless camera is actually performing monitoring as explained before. After reception of the real time video through our camera  we are in a position to take decision for the Extinguisher Vehicle whether we have to move it forward ,back , left or right..

           

           

           

                      

           

           

          10Fig.3.17  Wireless Camera.

           

          3.2.8 Water jet spray:

          Water jet spray with tank is use for sprinkling the water. In this project water jet spray is connected to the motor, which is drive by motor driver circuit. when command given from microcontroller to the motor driver circuit, motor driver circuit drives the motor and water jet spray is operated to sprinkle the water on fire.

           

          .hhFig.3.18 water tank

          3.2.9 Vehicle

          In this project the whole receiver circuitry is embedded over the Extinguisher Vehicle. This vehicle is moving with motors, microcontroller and by motor driver.We itself built the structure of our vehicle by taking the advise from our supervisor . It is cost effective, easily moveable and it has a lot of space for mounting motor’s circuitry and water jet spray.

          ddddFig. 3.19 Vehicle design

           

           

           

          3.2.10    Temperature Sensor:

          Description

          The LM35 series are precision integrated-circuit temperature sensors, whose output voltage is linearly proportional to the Celsius (Centigrade) temperature. The LM35 thus has an advantage over linear temperature sensors calibrated in ° Kelvin, as the user is not required to subtract a large constant voltage from its output to obtain convenient Centigrade scaling. The LM35 does not require any external calibration or trimming to provide typical accuracies of ±¼°C at room temperature and ±¾°C over a full -55 to +150°C temperature range. Low cost is assured by trimming and calibration at the wafer level. The LM35’s low output impedance, linear output, and precise inherent calibration make interfacing to readout or control circuitry especially easy.

           

          Pin Description

          fgfgFig.3.20 pin Configuration of LM35

          Features

          1. Calibrated directly in ° Celsius (Centigrade)
          2. Linear + 10.0 mV/°C scale factor
          • Rated for full -55° to +150°C range
          1. Suitable for remote applications
          2. Low cost due to wafer-level trimming
          3. Operates from 4 to 30 volts
          • Less than 60 µA current drain

           

            Chapter No.4   

          Software Implementation and Schematic Design

           

          The system has three types of software

            Software:

          Hyper Terminal

          MikroC

          Proteus

          Video Capturing Software

           

           4.1 Hyper Terminal: 

          HyperTerminal is an application that connects a computer to other remote systems. HyperTerminal (also known as Hyper Term) is a communications and terminal emulation program that comes with the Windows operating system, beginning with Windows 98.

          HyperTerminal can be used to set up a dial-up connection for data transfer between two computers (such as your desktop computer and a portable computer) using the serial ports and for serial-port control of external devices or systems such as scientific instruments, robots, or radio communications stations. HyperTerminal can also be used as a troubleshooting tool when setting up and using a modem. You can send commands through HyperTerminal to make sure that your modem is connected properly.

          In Windows XP, HyperTerminal can be located from the Start menu (Start–>Programs–>Accessories–>Communications–>HyperTerminal.

           

          4.1.1 Hyper Terminal Connection:

          The following sets show how to create a connection.

          If you have never run HyperTerminal before it will ask for your location and area code – this will not be needed for our application but enter this information anyway to get the software to start.Hyper Terminal will begin by asking for the Connection Description.  Enter a Name in the Name file such as ‘USBTTL’ and if you wish pick an Icon from the list and click OK

          4.20Fig.4.1 Connection Description

          The Connect To screen now appears, select the COM port that the USB to TTL cable has been assigned from the ‘Connect using:’ drop down list and click OK.

          fffFig.4.2 Com Port setting

           

          Next the Port Properties dialog box appears.  The example uses a baudrate of 9600 so select ‘9600’ in the ‘Bits per second:’ drop down box, and select ‘None’ in the ‘Flow control:’ drop down box.  The other settings should be the defaults.

          4.3Fig.4.3 Com properties

          The main HyperTerminal window will now appear and the connection will be open.  The default settings require both a ‘new line’ and a ‘line feed’ special character to be sent in order to start a new line.  The settings allow the ‘line feed’ to automatically be done when receiving a ‘new line’.  To turn this setting on, first disconnect by either selecting ‘disconnect’ from the Call Menu or by clicking on the Icon.  The select ‘Properties’ from the ‘File’ Menu, the Properties dialog box appears, Select the ‘Settings’ Tab.  Click on ‘ASCII Setup…’

          4.4Fig.4.4 New Line connection

           

           

          In the ASCII Setup Dialog box, tick the ‘Append line feeds to incoming line ends’ check box in the ASCII Receiving section and click OK.

          4.5Fig.4.5 ASCII setup

          Select ‘Call’ from the ‘Call’ Menu to open the serial port.  HyperTerminal is now ready to send and receive characters.  Note that with our settings any key pressed will just be sent down the USB to TTL cable (it will not be displayed on the screen).  Only characters being sent to the PC will be displayed on the screen.

          4.2 MikroC

          There are many software development tools are available for PIC but MikroC is the most famous for educational purposes.

          Mikroelectronica supplies range evaluation and development boards for the PIC and other microcontrollers , as well as C, Pascal, and Basic compilers. The C compiler MikroC is well documented in a downloadable user manual and includes a good range ofperipheral driver libraries, including CAN, Ethernet, and graphical LCD drivers as part of a comprehensive I/O library. The packages are oriented toward the educational and hobby market, offering additional features designed to assist the beginner in developing C applications. An evaluation version does not appear to be available at the time of this writing, and the compiler syntax can be assessed prior to purchase only by reference to code fragments given in the manual.

           

           

           

          As we see, the control registers are set up by loading control codes as hex numbers, which requires the program designer to look up the necessary bit configurations. However, the ADC access function is simple and concise, allowing the input channel to be selected as the function parameter

           

          11Fig 4.6 Programming window

          4.3 PROTEUS:

          This software helped us to draw a complete circuit for a micro-controller based system and then test it interactively, all from within the same piece of software. Meanwhile, this software retains a host of features aimed at the PCB designer, so that the same design can be exported for production with ARES or other PCB layout software.

          The Proteus Design Suite comprises a fully integrated EDA package with modules for schematic capture (ISIS), circuit simulation (PROSPICE), PCB layout (ARES) and embedded co-simulation (VSM). The simulation functions take place entirely within the schematic editor whilst ISIS and ARES share a common, easy to use, Windows user interface. All of which reduces the time it will take you to master the software. Naturally, ISIS and ARES are themselves tightly integrated, offering both forward and backward annotation.

          4.7Fig.4.7 Proteus Screen Shot

          4.4 Video Capturing Software:

          There are different types of Video Capturing software which can used for viewing the real time video.Some software has capability of recording the Video

           

          4.8Fig.4.8 Video Capture Software Screen Shot

           

          4.5 Schematic Design:

           

          4.5.1 Transmitter Section:

           

          4.9Fig. 4.9 Transmitter Section

           

          Pins Description:

           

          • Input which is given by Hyper terminal is transmitted through Serial Port pin no.3 to MAX 232.
          • MAX 232 receives the input at pin no.13 from Serial Port DB-9 and convert that 12V input signal to 5V output signal and then transmits that signal to Pic Microcontroller through pin no.11.
          • Microcontroller takes the 5V input signal from the MAX 232 and process the signal to take decision according to the input.
          • Miccontroller gives the output signal to Protection Circuit through pins no. 22 , 21 , 20 , 19.
          • Protection Circuit consist of Optoisolators which provide electrical isolation to Microcontroller Circuit.
          • Protection Circuit consist of four Optoisolators whose pin no.1 is common which connected to 5V supply and pin no.2 receives the control signal from Microcontroller.
          • Protection Circuit pin no.4 is also common while pin no.3  is connected to RF Module which can used for transmit and receive the signal to and from transmitter.

           

           

          Pins Description:

           

          • On the Receiver side the RF Module again receive the signal which is transmitted from the transmitter side.
          • RF Module gives that received signal to 4-bit Decoder PT2272 input pin no.9 which converts the input signal into digital signal for the manipulation of Microcontroller.
          • RF Module gives output signal to Microcontroller through pin no.12, 13, 14, and 15.
          • Microcontroller receives the input signal through pin no.19, 20, 21, and 22 and manipulates the input signal to give the required action signal to Control Unit Circuit.
          • Microcontroller gives output signal through pin no.33, 34, 35, and 36 to Control Unit Circuit.
          • Control Unit Circuit receives the required action signal through input pin and derives the different motor of control section.
          • These motors perform the different control actions such as water tank motor, vehicle and camera movement etc.

           

           

          4.5.3 Relay section:

          4.11Fig.4.11 Relay section

           

          Pins Description:

           

          • Temperature sensor LM35 gives analog value to analog input pin no.2 of the Microcontroller which internally converts that analog value into digital value.
          • This temperature value is transmitted back to computer side which tell us what is the temperature of fire place and displayed it to hyper terminal screen.
          • Microcontroller gives output signal through pin no.33 , 34 , 35 , 36 to Control Unit Circuit.
          • Control Unit Circuit receives the required action signal through input pin no.5 , 7 , 10 , 11 and gives the output signal through pin no.2 , 3 , 13 , 14 to different relays.
          • The required action signal through these output pins switch on the different relays to derive the motors which perform the different control actions such as water tank motor , vehicle and camera movement etc.

           

           

          Chapter 5

          Summary and Limitations

                                                                   

          The Project is designed to control the fire with live video and commands using computer .It is pc controlled and can be operated at a radial distance of 50 ft.

          Mostly in our industries and congested environments where we don’t enter or human beings are not safe we place such robotic vehicles which perform their job much more easily and precisely.

          This vehicle is wireless controlled with live video transmitting ability and has all the controls like a normal firefighters. Transceiver circuits are attached on both computer and vehicle side.

          In computer side different type of instructions are transmitted and live video and temperature sensor output  is received and displayed on computer screen.

           

          • In this project we have interfaced the vehicle with different kinds of I/O devices like motors, water tank, and different types of circuits.

           

          • We deduced that in comparison to humans, this type of robotic vehicle  can be much more efficient  and  take the  place  of fire fighters.

           

           

          • This project can be further enhanced to as a multi-disciplinary project involving electronics, electrical and computer engineers to work together to create more complex, intelligent robotic vehicle controlled by the 16F877A micro-controller.

           

          This project has several disadvantages as well.

           

          • More trained people are required

           

           

          Chapter 6

          Recommendations for Future Work

           

          6.1 Robots in future

          Commercial farms of the future may be staffed by robots that will identify, spray and pick individual pieces of produce from plants, even when their targets are grapes, peppers and apples that are as green as the leaves that surround them.

          Autonomous agricultural robots could protect human workers from the harmful effects of handling chemicals by hand. And through a system of highly selective spraying, robots could reduce a farm’s use of pesticides by up to 80 percent.

          Robots could also offer a timely supply of labor in many places, where there simply aren’t enough itinerant workers available at the right times in the harvesting cycle. Meanwhile, attempts to create robots that can see, grasp and learn could end up having widespread applications in medicine, video games and more.

          Modern commercial farms are already full of tractors with automated steering and machines that can milk cows and till soil. But zeroing in on individual fruits or vegetables is a much more challenging task. That’s because the outdoor environment is unpredictable and ever-changing.

          Each piece of produce, for example, has a unique shape, size, color and orientation, which means that a computer can’t be programmed to simply search for a specific image. Shadows and light conditions change throughout the day and night, as well, making an individual object look different under various conditions. Along with other sensors and programs, the researchers aim to create a robotic “brain” that could then learn from its mistakes and improve as it works.

           

          6.2 Life Like Robots

          Robotic engineers are designing the next generation of robots to look, feel and act more human, to make it  easier for us to warm up to a cold machine. Realistic looking hair and skin with embedded sensors will allow robots to react naturally in their environment. For example,  a robot that senses your touch on the shoulder and turns to greet you.

          Subtle actions by robots that typically go unnoticed between people, help bring them to life and can also relay  non verbal communication.

           

          Artificial eyes that move and blink. Slight chest movements that simulate breathing. Man made muscles to change facial expressions. These are all must have attributes for the socially acceptable robots of the future. The brain behind the beauty will be the key to turning a realistic looking machine into a life like robot. Al plays a pivotal role in successful human/robot interaction.

           

          6.3 Future Extensions

          We have used RF transmitter and receiver because of limitation of resources. it has a limited range. The range can be improved by using GSM and GPRS technologies. Wi-Max is also a better choice, And also this project will enhance by using voice recognition system which will creates user friendly environment and also make it for indoor environment and stair places.

          Robots of  today are using the technologies mentioned above. These long range robots are used for extinguish fire, spying, security and surveillance.

           

          Chapter7 

                                                   Conclusion

           

           The Project PC Based Fire Extinguisher Vehicle Using PIC Microcontroller is a combination of Communication system and  power electronics Systems. At the end of this project we are able to overcome all the past problems of extinguish the fire through robot. In past robots uses smoke detector to sense the fire. Through smoke detector the exact location of fire is not found. This problem is overcome by wireless camera, which tells us the exact location of fire. Also in past fans are use to extinguish the fire here we solve the problem by using water jet spray which extinguish the fire very accurately.

          We have  used  PIC  16F877A  in  our  Receiver  circuit  boards  which  efficiently  processes  our instruction and controls the robot. The numbers of additional functions can also be increased. What we have to do is the change in programming.

          So far in this project we have encountered a number of obstacles and problems. A major setback is the tuning of the video camera because this camera is wireless so it is very much difficult to tune it.

          This project is radio controlled and can be operated at a radial distance of 50 ft. Mostly in our industries where we don’t need much man power we place such vehicle which perform their job much easier and precisely. This vehicle is radio operated, self-powered, and has all the controls like a normal car.

          We have learnt so many valuable things while carrying out work on this project, and we are excited by the fact that we have much more to learn. We would like to thank our Project Supervisor.

           

          REFERENCES

           

          [1] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/MAX232

           

          Books References:

           

          Appendices:apendex

          Appendix A Flow Chart:

           

          Transmitter side:14

           

           


          Receiver Side:

          13

           

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