Communication Final Year Project Proposal

IMPLEMENTATION OF ELECTRIC CONTROL UNIT

Introduction:

An engine control unit (ECU) is a type of electronic control unit that controls the fuel injection system, ignition timing, engine temperature, water level, pressure and the idle speed control system. The ECU also interrupts the operation of the air conditioning and controls power to the fuel pump (through the control relay). The ECU consists of an 8-bit microprocessor, random access memory (RAM), read only memory (ROM), and an input/output interface.

The Engine Control Unit or ECU is a designated computer that was developed to manage the engine control system. The ECU monitors and adjusts the air/fuel mixture and utilizes a catalytic converter to minimize the amount of pollution produced from the engine.

Background:

Before the advancement in technology and introduction of ECU in automobile, the car engine was controlled mechanically. However the Implementation of Electric Control unit on Engines has greatly improved the performance of the engines.

The Electric system in car engines has also made it environment friendly moreover it has ensured greater security of the passengers aboard on the vehicle.

For example the combustion of fuel and air mixture in the combustion chamber of the engines earlier used mechanically controlled carburetors which effected the performance of the engines, as the fuel did not burn thoroughly, which  caused pollution in the environment. But ECU based Combustion system ensures the complete combustion of the fuel and air mixture thus increasing the efficiency of the engines and making them Environment friendly as well.

The ECU monitors the input and output signals produced by various sensors in the system. The ECU then adjusts the system as necessary. Sensors can include: coolant sensor, mass air flow sensor, air intake sensor, throttle position sensor and camshaft angle sensor.

It is based on information from the input sensors (engine coolant temperature, barometric pressure, air flow, etc.), the ECU determines optimum settings for the output actuators (injection, idle speed, ignition timing, etc.).

Objectives:

The main objective of our project is to design a model for an engine control unit that will indicate different alarms /signals to the user/driver of the Car regarding the

  • Fuel injection system of the car
  • The ignition timing of engine,
  • The engine temperatures,
  • Water levels in the engine radiator
  • Speed
  • Engine oil level

 

The project shall comprise of different sensors to detect/gather information about the car’s ignition timing, the engine temperatures and other such parameters.

The ECU works according to the input data that it gets from the various sensors that are located within the engine. It uses the closed-loop control method, where it monitors the output of a system in order to control the inputs to a system.

In our project we will use Controlled Area Network (CAN) bus protocol. CAN bus was developed by Bocsh in 1986 and it was first commercially used by Mercedes in 1992. It is multi master transmission, which broadcasts data all over the network with maximum transmission data rate of 1 Mbps.

CAN bus protocol is a multipoint communications system that connects different systems without the need of a master and a broadcast messaging system. CAN bus protocol receive data from different nodes simultaneously and the controller processes the data on priority bases. This guarantees fast data transmission

Features:

Electronic Control Units Keeps the vehicle’s brain sharp and Intelligent.

Following are the features of Engine control unit.

  1. Engine control units are linked and interact to control functions such as spark plug ignition timing, engine temperature, etc.
  2. ECU can be removed from the unit to reprogram it according to the conditions to make the engine efficient or to altered it to fulfill the timely requirements.
  3. ECU controls the air fuel mixture smartly to improve the fuel consumption.
  4.  The ECU monitors and adjusts the air/fuel mixture and utilizes a catalytic converter to minimize the amount of pollution produced from the engine.

Block Diagram:

Each node operates through a microcontroller which will receive data from each sensor and communicate to the ECU through CAN bus transceiver using CAN-bus protocol.

 

 

Tools:

  • Mikro C
  • MPlab IDE
  • Matlab
  • Proteus

Time Line

Week 1-2:

Documentation and study of ECU and its application and features

Week 3-4:

Study of CAN bus protocol its functions and prototypes.

Week 5-7:

Schematic analysis of nodes and selection of sensors and design

Week 8-10:

Designing of different nodes on Proteus, and PCB designing

Week 11-15:

Software development in MikroC and MPlab IDE and simulations and simulations in MATLAB using the built in CAN bus modules in MATLAB.

Week 16-21:Hardware designing and implementation

Week 22-24:

Testing and troubleshooting

Week 25-30:

Final Thesis

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